Shree Santosh Kapooria II

sss kapooria gym

They tried to kill Shree Santosh Kapooria in 1971, and succeeded in taking his physical form away from us. They could not do anything to the ideal form of Shree Kapooria, and its power over the minds of those who had seen him in their time or those who heard about him from others. There’s a gym in his locality that bears his name, and a Durga Puja Club too. More important than them is his only memorial in the minds of the students of his university and his contemporaries, those who belonged to his generation, and then, those who heard his story.

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Shree Chandrashekhar Azaad was Kapooriaji’s idol. The image above does bear a resemblance with the popular image of Azaad, with one exception: his fingers aren’t at his mustaches. All riyazis who go to akharas worship Hanumanji. They, and others who worship the god of power, actually invoke that power with an eye on the eventual identification. The anecdotes I have read and heard about Kapooriaji confirm that he was a regular riyazi and worshiper of the font of power: Hanumanji.

He used to exercise regularly. 1000 dands (Hindoo Push Ups) and 1000 baithaks (Hindoo Squats) used to be in his routine after jogging. He was a judoka, boxer and wrestler. Behind his efforts that went into his riyaz was his realization that one must have a strong and healthy body in order to serve their society and nation well. “Healthy body, strong limbs, face plain, pink albeit” was his mantra. He used to give that mantra to the youth of his family and neighbourhood and to his student friends and followers. He would inspire them by his own example and urge them to quit their bad habits and cultivate their body and mind. He was 5’7″ and weighed between 95-100 kg. His body was muscular and strong and reflexes sharp.

He is remembered for his physical strength, and for his intellectual and moral strengths too. He had completed his M Pharma and was elected the President of the Student Union of Banaras Hindu University. A booklet on him mentions very clearly that he had developed many formulas that would be beneficial to the masses. Yet, as he was not interested in using the knowledge he had for petty profit, he did not get the patents. The papers in which he had recorded his findings were stolen from his room after his death.

Kapooriaji was totally against the powerful political parties and anti-student and anti-social elements controlling the Student’s Union of his university. He knew that a strong Union pure of corruption and contamination would always think of and work for the welfare of he thousands of students of the university. So, he wanted that his university had no involvement of students in dirty politics and he worked for it too.

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Shree Santosh Kapuria

Haughtily would I proclaim to an audience of two: “I am the chronicler of my times”. They were neither a ready nor a good audience, but they were my only audience, and I’d return to them with the same theme every alternate month. They were my friends too, so they had no other choice. They bore it with a grin and swam happily away on to the foreground.

It’s after a long time that the chronicler in me has raised his head. I have a story to tell: the story of a legend, as far as I am concerned. It’s the story of a hero. I have heard its parts and pieces from two independent sources, both the hero’s contemporaries, separately. I’ll try to work upon the pieces to complete the picture (ironically though, I have no picture of the gentleman to offer with his story).

In both the versions I had heard about Mr. Kapooria, it was emphasised that he had lifted that cycle rikshaw of nearly a hundred kilograms (90-95 kg) and thrown it upon the gang that had attacked him on his last day, before succumbing to the fatal injuries later. Why the emphasis? And why that tone? Well, how many of us have met someone who could lift 100 kg outside the gym? And how many of them in a lifetime have we met? That’s not all. I gathered from my sources that he had represented our country at world level in Judo (the tournament was in Japan to be precise). He was a student leader and a very well known person in his University. His courage and freedom from baseness made him a legend after his death, the same qualities had brought about his death in the first place.

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1965 to 1967 in Banaras

I heard Mahommedali Currim Chagla‘s name for the first time nearly three decades after he had passed away. The context was Banaras Hindu University, and the person taking his name wore a frown of distaste while pronouncing the words M C Chagla. It was clear that he did not like the person who had served as the Education Minister of India from 1963 to 1966. Chagla had had the honour of calling Quaid-e-Azam and Babasaheb his colleagues. He was secular, so secular, that despite being a Muslim, he was cremated and not buried (wikipedia). Sundaram mentions in his article that Chagla had wished once that “it was his mission to educate a generation of Indians who would not be surprised when they saw a Hindu as vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University while his counterpart at Banaras Hindu University was a Muslim”.

m c chagla

Justice M. C. Chagla

(Source: http://asherxai.blogspot.in/2012/08/trivial-pursuit-150.html)

BHU Amendment Bill of 1965 proposed the removal of the word “Hindu” from the name of the university (Baran 377). The Union Minister of Edcation M C Chagla had “indicated in the parliament” (Baran 378) that in a secular country like ours, there’s no place for sectarian words in the names of the universities like Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and Banaras Hindu University) BHU. So, the idea, at least in theory, was to drop the words Muslim and Hindu and from their name change the names of two of the largest universities of India. BHU was chosen for the first onimectomy (cutting of the name, a neologism). Well, it backfired.

The Hindus did not like the removal of the word they associate their identity with, from the name of the only university in the world that had it. Students, as usual, were the quickest to react. the RSS, ABVP, Jan Sangh, Hindu Mahasabha etc. went along, or, as some allege, vice versa. There were protests, strikes, and the life in the university and in the city went off track for a fortnight. The old timers, remembering those days and the years of their student life, do recall many interesting anecdotes. Out of the many names taken during one conversation with an old alumnus of the university I heard the names of those leading the student protests. Out of many that I’d heard, my mind has retained the name of comrade Debu Majumdar. I had read his name on banners and walls of Varanasi some two decades ago. I had also read his name in Kashinath Singh’s Kashi ka Assi. This was the first time someone was telling me his name. Google leads us no further. Few more personal interviews may yield some more information about comrade. That will come later.

Back to the university then. The middle name of the great Banarasi university remained in its place, just as the university remained in its right place in the city that rests on Shiva’s trident, but Chagla had made the biggest mistake of his short political career. He did not remain in his place for long. The very next year came the general elections and he was not given his old department back in the new cabinet. 1967 was his last year in the cabinet and in politics.

He said that it was his mission to educate a generation of Indians who would not be surprised when they saw a Hindu as vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University while his counterpart at Banaras Hindu University was a Muslim. – See more at: http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=915#sthash.MCHwyCKa.dpuf
He said that it was his mission to educate a generation of Indians who would not be surprised when they saw a Hindu as vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University while his counterpart at Banaras Hindu University was a Muslim. – See more at: http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=915#sthash.MCHwyCKa.dpuf
He said that it was his mission to educate a generation of Indians who would not be surprised when they saw a Hindu as vice-chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University while his counterpart at Banaras Hindu University was a Muslim. – See more at: http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=915#sthash.MCHwyCKa.dpuf

1967 was important for Banaras – a city with three universities and a large number of students in hostels and the city. Along with the city’s history of rebellious proclivities, that made a volatile combination. The year 1967 was very important for Hindi, Banaras and for one full generation of students born just as the country was born. That year saw the movement by the students of the Hindi speaking belt of India for their demand that English be replaced by Hindi for all practical purposes. The unrest was widespread; so was the administrative crack down upon it. The state stood against the students in a manner proleptically pointing towards May 1968. Both Kashinath Singh’s Apna Morcha (Our Front) and Shivprasad Singh’s Gali Age Mudti Hai (The Lane Turns Ahead) cover the movement in detail and mention Ratnakar (Jubilee) Park incident very graphically, as it was from there that everything had begun.

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._C._Chagla

Ray, Anil Baran. “Secularism and Political Protest: The Case of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) Students’ Agitation of 1965”. Pressure Groups and Politics of Influence. Ed. Verinder Grover. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications, 1997. Print.

Sundaram, V. “MC Chagla: A Titan Among the Nationalists “. <<http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=915>&gt;

 

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In Memoriam: Lala Kashmirimal’s Mansion

Mourn for the departed glory and days

That have left the earth’s face unsung.

Mourn not for the glory that stays

With days imprinted sharp; for long.

Lala Kashmirimal's Mansion_Prinsep_thakur dwaree

James Prinsep has done a great service to the city of Benares by producing a series of sketches portraying its salient features back in 1820’s. In his Benares Illustrated the ghatscape dominates the scene. There are only two sketches of a Banarsi house and both are of Lala Kashmiri Mal’s Mansion (haveli). Those were the years of the decline of that banker’s house. The mansion was not so well kept as it used to be in its golden days around half a century ago, around King Chet Singh’s reign. Yet, the parts presented in the book, the temple in the house and the roof of the female section, are magnificent.

The house and its parts are made of solid sandstone from nearby Chunar. The huge stone mansion constructed in eighteenth century was considered as one of the four magnificent havelis of the city: the other three being Devki Nandan Khatri’s, Kangan Wali Haveli behind Beni Madho’s Dharhara and the one at Bulanala that I’ve not seen till date. The ceiling of the Thahkur Dwaree has a local parallel in that of the palace at Man Mandir Ghat:

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When imagination fills colours into the pattern on the ceiling of the black and white sketch, and the stones start breathing with the rhythm of their days of youth, one may actually “see” how magnificent the haveli would have appeared to a contemporary Banarsi, or, if James is not given that honour: traveller. There’s no furniture in the room, keeping with the local way of life. The stone columns terminate into the waved arches and patterns that fill the upper part of the room.

What Prinsep calls the sleeping apartments must have been the Zenana section of the haveli. How he entered the section is definitely surprising. But then, in those days, the rules of the native house did not hold for the powerful white race. The mansion had a male and a female section, as was customary in haveli architecture.

Lala Kashmirimal's Mansion_Prinsep_roof

It was around half past six in the morning. I was nearly five kilometres walk away from my home, in the labyrinth of lanes at the heart of pakki mahaal of Kashi. I had come there walking the ghatscape between Karnatak State Ghat and Umrao Giri/Lalita Ghat. I wanted to search for Umrao Giri’s Monastery and Baoli, but the two persons at Garhwasi Tola whom I asked about it had no clue. They also knew nothing of the haveli of the title. Even my kasiphile and very knowledgeable uncle could not give me directions for reaching the haveli.

I had entered the maze of the galis at the locality called Nepali Khapra. I had read it in the Kashi Edition of Soch Vichaar that the famous (that’s what I used to think till then) Lala Kashmirimal’s Haveli is in Nandan Sahu Lane. I crossed Garhwaasi Tola and turned right before the main gali meets Thatheri Bazaar, as I knew that the  haveli was somewhere there. And then, I read the stone tablet declaring that I was in “Nandan Sahu Lane”. As it was still early in the morning, the normally crowded galis of Kashi wore a deserted look. The only human beings that could be found in the galis were the sweepers and the pullers of the carts that carry the filth away. I hesitated in accosting them with my query for the exact directions and missed my chance.

I had lost all hope of reaching the haveli when I met the gentleman in the image below. As can be seen, he is in his early morning muhalla attire: gamcha and vest. By an experienced guess, it can be said that he lives very close to the point where he was located in the morning.

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“Where’s Lala Kashmirimal’s Haveli?”, I asked him. “There,” said he. Now, the word “there” hasn’t any definite meaning in Varanasi. It may mean: I don’t know, in the next gali, exactly where you have just walked past from, right in front of us etc. So, to place my feet firmly upon the rock of reality, I repeated my question. This time round, pointing towards the house in front, he reaffirmed: “There”. “But it’s so small”, said I. “Small?” I had offended him into animation, “Look into that gali, the wall of the house runs up to its end”.

The walls of solid stone that rose two stories from their base at the gali ran long indeed, but that did not impress me. So, I asked him in dismay and disappointment arising from the building’s not meeting my expectations. I had read and seen so much about it that I had created its image in my mind. This “thing” was in no way like that image. Not in the exact words, but as I was in my thinking aloud mode, the same was conveyed to the gentleman in gamcha. “It had four storeys as you can see by the structure towards the end of the wall”, said he. He was right. At the other end of the house, I could see all the four storeys intact.

Lala Kashmirimal's Haveli ruins

Now, four storeys is not uncommon in the pakki mahaal that can boast of several houses that have two, even three storeys over that. The remarkable thing about the building was its length multiplied by its width, i.e. the area of its base, and the minute work on its stone base. Compared to the details on the parapets in the black and white sketches, the window in the image to the left below and the space above the lintel over the door to the right are but poor shadows of the past glory. It must have taken years of hard work by hundreds to chisel and carve the stone and then to put it in its right place to make a work of art: Lala Kashmirimal’s Haveli.

DSC07926_lattice kashmirimal DSC07940_arch etc

Not even a decade ago was the haveli in its place. Although not its condition, its existence can be gathered from local accounts of its presence at Nandan Sahu Lane. I used to pass the gali in order to reach Chaukhambha, or during my trips towards Bibi Hatiya etc. I didn’t know then. I didn’t know three things: there was something like Kashmirimal’s Haveli, it was in that locality, and it would be wiped clean from the face of the earth before I reached it.

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The City is Mine

How can they take from what’s always been mine without even taking my permission? 

It makes me feel jealous, angry, and at the same time, happy.

Isn’t it strange? It’s true nevertheless.

My city is is called my city because its mine. In all the years of my roaming throughout the sub-sub-continent no one has ever contested my claim over my city: not even my own family members. I love them more for that reason. When a blog post about Banaras is good, it presents a challenge in two ways: it lays its claim to the possession of my city as its own, and it jolts me awake from my lazy literary nap. It’s good when many are drawn towards my city. I feel proud and insecure, for it’s no more mine alone.

Sweeping all existential insecurities aside, I welcome all the lovers of Kashi: the kasiphiles. Let the tribe flourish.

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There aren’t many blogs about Banaras, other than those with purely commercial and promotional motivations. There are a couple of exceptions, e.g. the Kautilya Society blog. The very few other non-promotional blogs but they don’t cover much of the city. London, on the other hand, has over 100 blogs on it, rich blogs, not emaciated ones. The same is true of New York. There are many blogs on Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai too, but very few on Varanasi: the oldest and tradition-wise, the richest, among all the cities mentioned above.

There’s a genre of blogs I accidentally stumbled upon while researching for the blogs on my city: the city-walks web sites. It all began with London I guess, because the prime London walks site is simply called “walks.com”! So, naturally there’s a varanasiwalks.com too. Well let it be mentioned here that putting the name of the cities of India with walks and searching on google, I found that there aren’t many “walks” sites on Indian cities. There isn’t any on Chennai, for instance. Lucknow, Bangalore, Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi – all have their own “walks” sites. I could locate one blog on Amritsar, but nothing on Agra, Allahabad, Ahmedabad etc. and to finish the list, there’s a purely commercial indiacitywalks.com. I’d love to see a lahorewalks.com in the time to come. Long enough digression! let’s return to the main point, that is my intense jealousy directed upon those writing about, or with a free access to Varanasi. I acknowledge that the statement made above is true.

 

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Migrations from Banaras

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Kashi, the religio-spiritual magnate that attracted Hindus from all over the world, had once been a city of thriving commerce, as its history tells us. Dharm, arth, kaam and moksh: all have been adequately, abundantly and surely available to the dweller of the city. Of course, moksh came into the equation once a person had reached a certain age, i.e. the stage of life called vanprasth. The first three objectives have always been in play behind a migrant’s decision to reach the city and settle there. That remained the case until the first few decades of the previous century. The story of the city, and that of its people, changed with the changing economic and cultural geography of India, and the world. From what used to be one of the major cities of the state, as far as commerce is concerned, Kashi became its backwaters.

The ten years, somewhere in the middle of the twentieth century, i.e. the decade after India got independence, brought more change to the city’s socioeconomic structure than the whole century preceding that time had seen. Of course, the economy and the government of the country had changed, so, the fates of the people naturally had to change. Urballaghologically speaking, the change was going to shock people in a very slow and belated manner.

The contrast between the pristine past and the present plastered with muck, and blaming it on modernization and mechanization, has been a strategy adopted by all the Luddites through ages. That’s not what urballaghology does. It does not aim at spreading panic and destroying things. Its aim is balanced thinking and preservation: preservation of whatever was good, whatever worked well for the people and was pushed aside by the new without a proper hearing. Banaras, and the world, have always been changing as change is the only unchangeable thing. Urballaghology doesn’t aim at opposing change with the purpose of arresting the flow of time. That isn’t possible. The idea is to protect what has been at the core of life and identity of the city and its dwellers. Recognizing the factors causing change and the factors that may alter its rate, and then doing things to counteract its negative effects.

Migration of talent and youth to the city of Kashi had been the popularly observed phenomenon that also finds place in traditions, oral and printed literature. Migration away from the city was something new. In the beginning, when the phenomenon was still new, people could not fully realize what was happening to their city. There was one more reason behind it: the large number of people descending upon the scene from the nearby areas of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Thus, the influx counterbalanced the out-flux and the city did not become deserted. Those born in the city, after having secured their degrees from its (then) world class university, left it for the greener pastures. What else could they do? They were the ones who worked, not the ones who created employment opportunities.

And then, there were those who believed in:

चना चबेना गंगजल, जो पुरें करतार
काशी कबहूँ न छोड़िए, बाबा विश्वनाथ दरबार.

[My translation: Whatever little the Lord of Kashi gives you, be satisfied with that. Never leave Kashi that is the abode and court of Baba Vishwanath.]

The true believers remained in their city. The more materialistically inclined left, only to look back and think about their good old (dawn, morning, afternoon, dusk, evening and night) = days of Kashi. Those who belonged to neither categories, i.e. they remained not because they chose to but because they couldn’t leave, such persons stayed back and hated each day of their trapped existence in the city of filth. For them there was no city of light, as both the cities are one. Proving the laws of space in Physics wrong in its own way, Banaras is two cities at one time: the city of light and of filth, and a person can either see both and live in one or see one and live in it. The Kashi one sees is the Kashi one gets.

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Migrants and Banaras

The equation of pure Banarsipan has many variables in it. One of its important variables, in the eyes of the jury i.e. the other Banarsis, is the length of their stay in the city: in terms of decades and centuries. Banaras has been a city that acted as an educational and religio-spiritual magnate for the Hindus of India since the time of the Delhi Sultanates. Come they would, the Hindus, to the city that rested at Shiva’s trident. The less fortunate ones would stay for a day, week or month and then leave. They were called the pilgrims.

The more fortunate ones came to Avimukta, the city that Shiva never left, never to leave. They came for Kashiwaas or Kashilabh, depending on their age and health. With these religio-spiritual migrants came those members of their family that would stay in the city either for the lifetime of the root member or even after they are no more, as independent individuals. The other kind of migrants were those who came to the city of knowledge, of light, to graduate in one of the disciplines of knowledge. Post graduation, they would either return to their place of origin or would stay back in the city of their alma mater.

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My grandfather, father and uncles

My grandfather had come to the city with his grandfather and his mother back in 1938 (seventy six years ago). My uncle (the little boy standing in the middle) gave me the key information regarding my family in Banaras. They belonged to Mithilanchal in today’s Bihar. I have been to my paternal place of origin only once. It’s a village called Bhittha More in Sitamarhi district (used to be Muzaffarpur district once). It’s very close to India-Nepal border, near Janakpur, Nepal, the place where Mithila’s king and Maithili’s father King Janak used to rule from. Mithila was known as Videha in olden times and comprised of a large chunk of Bihar and Nepal, as wikipedia informs, between the rivers Ganga, Kosi and Gandak. Janakpur, its capital, is in Nepal. Maithils Brahmins have roots in Mithila and those I know keep visiting their village back home. My family’s direct link with the village had been weak for the last three decades. It’s absolutely nil now.

My father (the boy standing extreme left) and all his siblings were born in the city. Those were the times of high infant and child mortality. Tragically then, out of seven siblings of his, only five survived. They all went to the same school and then to the same university, “The University”, the Banaras Hindu University. The University itself was established just a couple of decades before their father’s arrival to the city. My grandfather himself had never attended any university. He was an autodidact who had taught himself Sanskrit so well that he could actually teach Kiratarjuniyam to a postgraduate student while having no degree in the language himself. What’s more, he had learnt the language for karmkand (rituals) and had learnt it so well that he could teach literature too. I am recognized among the Maithils of my city with panditji, i.e. my grandfather’s name and his identity as a scholar. The city’s history, and that of the family were intertwined in a way.

I have always wondered, since my childhood, about my grandfather and the years 1942-47, i.e. the years between the Quit India Movement and India’s Independence. There’s no help that can shed some light in that direction. Grandpa’s old Geeta Press pocket journals, some of which I had kept carefully in my treasure box, are all gone – eaten by termites and burnt later. It was in one of those dainandinis that I had read that my father was born on 30 January 1948 – the date of Mahatma Gandhi’s martyrdom.

I don’t remember having seen any reference to my grandfather’s involvement, or even interest, in India’s struggle for independence. So, I may safely guess that my grandfather (should we call him a Banarsi in 1942 when he had reached the city in 1938?) and many people like him, those who were new to the city, were still struggling with acclimatization while many Banarsis were struggling for their independence. To be fair, it must be mentioned that many non-Banarsis new to the city had participated actively in our struggle for independence in the short span of their stay in the city. Their names include the likes of Chandrashekhar Azad.

So, the second world war and India’s struggle for independence could not alter the noiseless tenor of grandpa’s life. He was a migrant to Banaras but his children, three of whom were born between 1942 and 1947, were to be Banarsis who migrated to other cities. His story and that of his sons is also the story of the city. It didn’t take more than a generation for the time to change the city and the life of those attached to it.

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Muslims at Ganga Ghats in Kashi

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I have seen my city with Hindu eyes. I’ve enjoyed its ghats, galis and Gangaji as a Hindu. In last few years I have been curious to know about the Banaras experience as a Muslim. When I returned to my city, I returned with a heightened consciousness towards certain things: a consciousness that gave me a whole new perspective. It enabled me to see things that were new to me, and also the old things in a new light. Distancing has a beneficial critical effect on my analytical faculties, it seems. So, while my walks through the ghats I started marking things that I’d pass without noticing in my previous life. The span of my stay being so short, an acute sense of shortage of time and the accompanying need to absorb while observing, have always accompanied me on my trips. Moreover, camera, the friend of observing man,  has also helped me in many ways: in both capturing and recalling moments.

It was while looking at the images taken in my last trip to Varanasi that I discovered my “Muslims at Ganga Ghat” photos. I was fully aware of my purpose while clicking them back then: that I wanted to do at least one post on Muslims at ghats, just like I have been planning to do a post on “Women at Ganga Ghats”. Later on, I was caught up with other themes. Finally, I committed myself to the post by uploading a few images from my collection.

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The one image that I posted in the beginning is accidental. I was clicking my camera indiscriminately, as I always do when rising or setting sun is around and I’m in Banaras. It was a regular trip from Karnatak State Ghat to Digpatiya Ghat. Something in the ghatscape changed at Rana Mahal Ghat. The Muslim identity markers viz. white kurta and pajama, check lungi, the distinctive skull cap, along with the beard made it clear that the ghatscape demography had been suddenly inverted.There was this gentleman enjoying the rising sun, and I took their photograph without asking them.

The ghats around Harishchandra Ghat have no Muslims because it’s the ghat where Hindus cremate their dead. Kedar Ghat has the popular Kedar Temple and is always filled with either the permanent or floating Hindu population. Chowki, Kshemeshwar and Mansarovar Ghats belong to washermen and boatmen and are of low value for the pilgrims. They are not good for those who wish to enter the river. Narad Ghat and Raja Ghat receive South Indian pilgrims and Pandey Ghat has a high concentration of Japanese and other foreign nationals. Finally, we reach Chausatti and Rana Mahal ghats. These ghats probably receive the Muslim populations of Madanpura and allied lanes that are in the vicinity.

Muslims Chausatti Ghat

People come there to sit, chat, play cricket, take their bath, swim in the river or for boating, and generally have some good time. Good time is guaranteed in the city of good life, especially when one has already reached its font of life: Gangaji. The river has a definite and deep effect on human mind: “Peace comes dropping slow” on the ghats (Yeats, “The Lake Isle”). I couldn’t chat with anyone there as I was rushing forth to my destination and I’d come back, predictably (Sitting duck, my friend Rishi calls the locations where I return again and again. According to his theory, I can postpone photographing them for the next visit, and then the next!). Well, life is both short and unpredictable. I don’t plan it, but any day can be my last. The sitting duck theory is not for people like me then. No interactions or interviews took place on those ghats. I simply clicked a couple of images and walked on.

Muslims teliyanal ghat

From Chausatti Ghat onwards there are major Hindu Ghats: Dashashwamedh, Manikarnika and Panchganga. Along with Assi, Kedar and Adi Keshav Ghats, the three ghats previously mentioned receive the maximum foot fall on both normal and festival days. There are a couple of ghats around Teliyanala Ghat where a definite Muslim presence can be felt again. Then again, towards Assi Ghat, they can be seen at Prabhu and Chet Singh Ghats.

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Chet Singh Ghat is famous for its bird population. Wild pigeons, parakeets and mynahs have made their nest in the niches of the palace gate and wall. There are people from the neighbourhood who come to the ghat to feed the birds and the fish. Feeding fish is a popular activity in Kashi, as it’s considered as a part of dharma by Hindus, and Muslims like it too. Although Prabhu Ghat is the favourite spot of the Banarsi anglers too, many of them Muslims from around. So, I spotted this gentleman in my early morning visits to the ghat. He would come with a polythene sack full of bird feed and would start beckoning them and scattering the feed on the steps of the ghat. The birds would come flying to their friend. Amateur photographers like me find the moment and place just right for shooting at will, and indiscriminately, hoping for rich rewards.

He is as regular as the other Banarsis on this ghat and on other ghats. The city’s rhythm has become one with the rhythm of his life. Banaras has grown into him, sprouted roots and all. Once more, it should be made clear that other cities have their rhythm that become one with many living there, and I’m not claiming uniqueness for my city here. I’m only pointing towards the obvious and noting it down for others to see too. And yes, I’m generalizing because I don’t have more data to particularize with. While walking towards Raj Ghat I saw a woman in naquab near Naya Ghat.

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This trip of mine was special as I observed, contrary to my previous view, that women are present throughout the ghatscape, if not as strongly as the men of the city, then at least in larger numbers than what their numbers used to be in the past. More about that some other time. The image above was taken with the purpose of showing a Muslim woman at ghats. It was around seven in the morning. The couple, I am sure, sat there facing the river and the newly risen sun from behind its further banks. Had I been more poetic I’d call their pose meditative. Being what I am, let’s just say that they were enjoying the morning moderateness of the otherwise unbearable sun rays. They were completely at home: a fact that tells me that they are regulars to that ghat and the routine: pukka Banarsis.

 

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Tara Pith, Bengali Tola, Varanasi

Arch and bell, Tara Pith

I used to pass the entrance of the temple and through the gali on nearly daily basis but I never suspected that there would be such a huge temple in an apparently constricted space that’s in no way unique to Tara Pith in Varanasi. I have seen spacious inner courtyards with rectangular gardens in them, e.g. Agrasen Mahajani Vidyalaya building at Chaukhambha and Kymarswami Mutt beside Kedareshwar Temple. The front courtyard has arched passageways supported on columns that lead to the two side courtyards of the temples of Ma Vishalakshi and Ma Kali. Another passage by the courtyard at the right hand leads to Tara Temple.

Vishalakshi Devi, Tara Pith

The gates were closed when I reached the compound. A gentleman, probably from the family of the caretakers, was cleaning the courtyard and passageway at the entrance (only one entrance is functional, the other entrances from the gali are kept locked nowadays). The walls of the whole compound were freshly painted with ochre – the colour of renunciation, ergo, symbolising holiness – and white. The columns and multi-globulated arches looked strangely Bengali and Rajasthani.

Courtyard and gali opening side

“Those who know” is the term generally used for those with inside information about the past and present of a place. Their names are lost in amorphous haze. Well, not in this case, because this time,  “those who know” happen to be my uncle (Babla Mama) and grandmother (Nani). So, they told me that Rani Rashmoni had the temple constructed. They also told me a story about the temple and its past. Their story had a point, and another story in it. It was about the platform upon which the idol of Ma Tara rests. Before we proceed, I must direct the reader to the P.S. Please go there and then come back.

Rani_Rashmoni_indiapicks.com

(Source: indiapicks.com)

Before going into the story let me share what I came to know through my search with the key word “Rani Rashmoni”. She was born in 1793 and lived up to 1861. She’s called “Lokmata” the mother of the people. There’s a mission bearing her name. A Bangla movie of 1955 bears her name too. She was a real hero (ine). The span through which she remained at the helm of her zamindari was also the period of the rise of the power of the East India Company in India. She was the original Iron Lady. At least that’s what I gather from her biography. She had the courage to stand firmly against the East India Company and twist their metaphorical arms more than once to get what she saw as good for her sons: her people, as she was the lokmata. It’s the story of such personalities that pass on to become legends and her legend transcended both geographical and temporal boundaries.

Ma Kali, Tara Pith

The Government of India issued a postage stamp in 1994, to commemorate her bicentennial year. She will always be remembered for having Dakshineshwar Kali Temple constructed, and for her courage and balance of the spiritual with the meterial.

A couple of pages on her that I liked are:

http://suvrobemused.blogspot.in/2008/11/rashmoni-dim-distant-light.html

http://www.dakshineswarkalitemple.org/rashmoni.html

Tantrik Yajna Vedi, Tara Pith

After having read about her, now I know that her legend that I received in Banaras is definitely false. Yet, it lives on, and with each re-telling, breathes one more time. The story that I was told had a defiant queen denying some Englishman her daughter’s hand. As they come storming into her palace, she, a devotee of Ma Tara, orders her men to bury her daughter alive, construct a platform and establish the Mother’s idol over the platform. Her command was obeyed and the kanya’s form was fused into that of the goddess. The story was embedded  into the minds of “those who knew”, and then was told and re-told. The legend of the Rani and her temple in Kashi (although none of the pages I read mentions any such temple) lived and grew.

Ma Tara, Tara Pith

When it reached me, it had an addendum. I was told that in the olden times the sanctum of Ma Tara was illuminated with the light of one lamp only. In those olden days, only the brave heart would go there and there was only one person who could act as the priest in the Mother’s temple. He was partially mad. Other than him, whosoever tried to worship he as her priest would either turn mad or die a painful death. After electricity bulbs were introduced, the place is now open to all who wish to go there. So, inducted in the lore of fear, nay terror, I entered the compound.

Incongruous repair work with bricks

 Well, during my journey between the three sanctums, the only fear that lingered in my mind was that I’d be forbidden to take pictures. So, I clicked quickly and when no one was looking. In fact, the whole compound was deserted while I roamed and clicked, yet the fear did not leave me until I had left the compound and entered the gali. More about that fear later.

 A word about the defacement in the name of reconstruction of heritage buildings in Banaras here: I marked that the portions where stone had broken beyond repair, they had erected brick and cement walls, like ugly patches on a beautiful Banarsi Sari.

P.S. Sri Rama Murthy corrected my error by mentioning that the temple was constructed by Rani Bhavani. He is right. And here’s the evidence:

tara temple

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Surdas and Krishna

It started with my search for one of Surdasji’s songs, and for its lyrics. Google took me to kavitakosh and I got the lyrics:

जसोदा हरि पालनैं झुलावै।
हलरावै, दुलराइ मल्हावै, जोइ-जोइ कछु गावै ॥
मेरे लाल कौं आउ निंदरिया, काहैं न आनि सुवावै ।
तू काहैं नहिं बेगहिं आवै, तोकौं कान्ह बुलावै ॥
कबहुँ पलक हरि मूँदि लेत हैं, कबहुँ अधर फरकावै ।
सोवत जानि मौन ह्वै कै रहि, करि-करि सैन बतावै ॥
इहिं अंतर अकुलाइ उठे हरि, जसुमति मधुरैं गावै ।
जो सुख सूर अमर-मुनि दुरलभ, सो नँद-भामिनि पावै ॥

(Source: kavitakosh.org)

My Translation:

Yashoda rocks Krishna in the cradle. She sings a lullaby for him lovingly and joins whichever word first comes to her mind for the lyrics. She calls Sleep and urges her to come quickly to her son. Krishna closes his eyes at times and sometimes he starts moving his lips. He sleeps for a time and during the sleep he probably has a nightmare. Yashoda sings sweetly. She gets the bliss rare even for the immortal sages so easily.

Why this song on a blog page on Kashi? Surdas had no Banaras connection, as far as we know. Neither has Krishna been reported coming to the city. His guru, sage Sandeepan, was from the city alright, but linking him to the city on the basis of that will be stretching it too far. What is the justification for their appearance then?

Bindu Madhav Idol

Well, the logical justification is in the traditionally centrally established cult of Krishna in Kashi. Before Aurangzeb had ordered its destruction, the temple of Bindu Madhav (Krishna) was the second largest temple of India (After the Jagannath temple of Puri), as Tavernier reports. The Vaishnavs have been strong in the city and that can be proven through facts like Goswami Tulsidas’s residing in the city for a long time, the rise of the Gosains in the nineteenth century, and, of course, the ancient Adi Keshav temple and the sacred Manikarnika dug by Vishnu. Although Kashi is Shivji’s beloved city, Vishnu resides here too.

Now, the personal reasons behind the appearance of the poet and his Lord. Surdas and Krishna are deeply related to the author of the blog. I was introduced to Krishna in my childhood through the stories my grandmother used to tell me and I used to read in Chandamama and  Amar Chitra Katha. Surdas came later. He was a regular presence in the Hindi books of Uttar Pradesh Board schools. I very clearly remember having read in my course books of Hindi the song given above and two more in this post.

The next song is about nostalgia. It’s about a person’s missing their home: the place and people they grew up with. It’s about a son’s missing his childhood, his parents and the love that they showered on him back then. So what is Krishna is an incarnation of Vishnu? His emotions are human:

ऊधो, मोहिं ब्रज बिसरत नाहीं।
बृंदावन गोकुल तन आवत सघन तृनन की छाहीं॥
प्रात समय माता जसुमति अरु नंद देखि सुख पावत।
माखन रोटी दह्यो सजायौ अति हित साथ खवावत॥
गोपी ग्वाल बाल संग खेलत सब दिन हंसत सिरात।
सूरदास, धनि धनि ब्रजबासी जिनसों हंसत ब्रजनाथ॥

(Source: kavitakosh.org)

My Translation:

The nostalgic Krishna tells his friend Udhav that he can’t forget his home: his Braj. He remembers the cool shade of the dense arbors of Vrindawan, and the satisfaction of looking at his parents in the morning. He can’t forget how mother used to feed him bread with butter and yogurt, and her love. He remembers how he used to play throughout the day with his friends. Surdas says blessed are the dwellers of Braj with whom Lord Krishna smiles and plays.

In a way, I suspect, he too can’t accept change as the only unchangeable law of nature. The good old days are past and will not come back, not even for Him from whom space and time originated.

I like the next song for its dense placement of similies, contarsts and analogies.

मेरो मन अनत कहाँ सुख पावै।
जैसे उड़ि जहाज की पंछी, फिरि जहाज पै आवै॥
कमल-नैन को छाँड़ि महातम, और देव को ध्यावै।
परम गंग को छाँड़ि पियासो, दुरमति कूप खनावै॥
जिहिं मधुकर अंबुज-रस चाख्यो, क्यों करील-फल भावै।
‘सूरदास’ प्रभु कामधेनु तजि, छेरी कौन दुहावै॥

(Source: kavitakosh.org)

My Translation:

Where else can my heart get rest. Like the bird of the ship returns to it after circling it in the ocean (my heart is drawn towards my home). Like the fool who worships some other gods instead of He whose eyes are like the lotus flower, or the person whose mental faculties have been so much compromised that he commissions the digging of a well by the side of river Ganga. How can the honey collecting wasp who has tasted the nectar, like the taste of a wild berry. Surdas says who would leave Kaamdhenu, the celestial cow,and opt for the milk of a goat.

 

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